Site hosted by Angelfire.com: Build your free website today!
Under construction ...

Comments and questions can be mailed to the author

Main Page: Titles of European hereditary rulers


Last updated: Jan 2, 2013



Luxembourg / Lëtzebuerg


Part III. Since 1814.


Overview.

In 1798, by the Treaty of Campo Formio, Emperor Francis II ceded the Southern Low Countries and Luxembourg to France.

The Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) assigned Luxembourg to William I, King of the Netherlands.

In 1830, much of the population of Luxembourg joined the Belgian revolution against Dutch rule. Except for the fortress and its immediate vicinity Luxembourg became a part of the new Belgian state from 1830 to 1839.
1839, by the Treaty of London, Luxembourg was re-established as Grand Duchy in personal union with the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Luxembourg lost two-thirds of its territory to Belgium.

In 1815-1866, Luxembourg was a member of the German Confederation (Deutsche Bund).

The union of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Kingdom of the Netherlands ended with the death of King - Grand Duke William III (+1890), the last male representative of the Dillenburg-Dietz branch of the House of Nassau; the Grand Duchy passed to Adolphus (+1905), the former Duke of Nassau, and the Head of the Weilburg branch of the House.

In May 1940, German troops occupied Luxembourg, and the Government of Luxembourg and Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg, went into exile.

In August 1942, Luxembourg was officially annexed to Germany.

In September 1944, American troops liberated Luxembourg.
In December 1944, during the Battle of the Bulge (Rundstedt Offensive), German troops reoccupied the Northern part of Luxembourg, but they were driven out of Luxembourg again in January 1945. The independence of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was restored.


Bibliography.


1. Almanach de Gotha (Gotha, 1763-1944).
2. Pasinomie luxembourgeoise (Luxembourg : Impr. de la Cour Victor Buck).
3. Mémorial / Mémorial administratif du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg = Verwaltungs-Memorial des Gross-Herzogthums Lutzemburg / Mémorial Journal Officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg = Amtsblatt des Großherzogtums Luxemburg / Mémorial législatif et administratif du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg = Verwaltungs- und Verordnungsblatt des Großherzogthums Luxemburg (Luxembourg).
4. Journal officiel du Gouvernement de la Belgique (Bruxelles : Weissenbruch, 1814-).


Geographical names.

Luxembourg -> Luxemburg; Lutzenburg; Lëtzebuerg;
Netherlands -> Niederlande; Pays-Bas;
Orange -> Oranien; Oranje (in France);



Christian (First) names.

Henry -> Henricus; Heinrich; Henri;
John -> Johannes; Johann; Jean;
William -> Guillelmus; Wilhelm; Guillaume;






--- 1795-1814 ( Interregnum: the annexation to France )






--- 1814-1815






--- 1815-1815

King of the Netherlands;
Prince of Orange-Nassau;
Duke of Luxembourg;

@ Samples [Auxiliary]:

(Mar 1815) [4: tome V (1815); p.2-3; Doc.# 1]
< William I (+1843), Prince (King 1815) of the Netherlands [1813-1840]; Grand Duke of Luxemburg [1815-1840] >
Wij, Willem, bij de Gratie Gods, Koning der Nederlanden,
Prins van Oranje-Nassau,
Hertog van Luxemburg enz., enz., enz.
+
Nous Guillaume, par la grace de Dieu. Roi des Pays-Bas,
Prince d'Orange-Nassau,
Duc de Luxembourg, &c. &c. &c.

(May 1815) [4: tome V (1815); p.144-157; Doc.# 337]
Wij, Willem, bij de Gratie Gods, Koning der Nederlanden,
Prins van Oranje-Nassau,
Hertog van Luxemburg enz., enz., enz.
+
Nous Guillaume, par la grace de Dieu. Roi des Pays-Bas,
Prince d'Orange-Nassau,
Duc de Luxembourg, &c. &c. &c.






--- 1815-1890

King of the Netherlands;
Prince of Orange-Nassau;
Grand Duke of Luxembourg;

@Replaced:

- [1815] Luxembourg (Duchy) with Luxembourg (Grand Duchy)
The Congress of Vienna erected Luxembourg to the rank of Grand Duchy (1815).

@ Samples:

(Sep 1816) [3: Jahr 1816; Hälfte / sémestre II; Nr. 19; 14 octobre 1816; p.224-229]
< William I (+1843), Prince (King 1815) of the Netherlands [1813-1840]; Grand Duke of Luxemburg [1815-1840] >
Nous Guillaume, par la grace de Dieu. Roi des Pays-Bas,
Prince d'Orange-Nassau,
Grand-Duc de Luxembourg, &c. &c. &c.
+
Wir Wilhelm, durch die Gnade Gottes, König der Niederlande,
Prinz von Oranien-Nassau,
Groß-Herzog von Lützemburg, zc., zc., zc.

(Sep 1841) [3: Jahr 1841; Nr. 46; p.345]
< William II (+1849), King of the Netherlands & Grand Duke of Luxemburg 1840 >
Wir Wilhelm II, von Gottes Gnaden König der Niederlande,
Prinz von Oranien-Nassau,
Großherzog von Luxemburg, zc., zc., zc.
+
Nous Guillaume II, par la grâce de Dieu. Roi des Pays-Bas,
Prince d'Orange-Nassau,
Grand-Duc de Luxembourg, etc. etc. etc.

(Dec 1883) [3: Nr. 62; 29 décembre 1883; p.637]
< William III (+1890), King of the Netherlands & Grand Duke of Luxemburg 1849 >
Nous Guillaume III, par la grâce de Dieu. Roi des Pays-Bas,
Prince d'Orange-Nassau,
Grand-Duc de Luxembourg, etc. etc. etc.
+
Wir Wilhelm III, von Gottes Gnaden König der Niederlande,
Prinz von Oranien-Nassau,
Großherzog von Luxemburg, zc., zc., zc.






--- 1890-1940

-- the Short form

Grand Duke of Luxembourg;
Duke of Nassau;

@ Samples:

(Mar 1892) [3: Nr.17; 31 mars 1892; p.137]
< Adolphus (+1905), Duke of Nassau [1839-1866]; Grand Duke of Luxembourg 1890 >
Nous Adolphe, par la grâce de Dieu, Grand-Duc de Luxembourg,
Duc de Nassau,etc., etc., etc.
+
Wir Adolph, von Gottes Gnaden Großherzog
von Luxemburg, Herzog zu Nassau, zc., zc., zc.

(July 1907) [3: Nr.37; 11 juillet 1907; p.441]
Nous Guillaume, par la grâce de Dieu, Grand-Duc de Luxembourg,
Duc de Nassau, etc., etc., etc.
+
Wir Wilhelm, von Gottes Gnaden Großherzog
von Luxemburg, Herzog zu Nassau, zc., zc., zc.

(Nov 1915) [3: Nr.92; 7 novembre 1915; p.1009]
< Mary-Adelaide (+1924), Grand Duchess of Luxembourg [1912-1919] >
Nous Marie-Adélaide, par la grâce de Dieu, Grande-Duchesse de Luxembourg,
Duchesse de Nassau etc., etc., etc.
+
Wir Wir Maria Adelheid, von Gottes Gnaden Großherzogin von Luxemburg,
Herzogin zu Nassau, zc., zc., zc.

(Mar 1936) [3: Nr.25; 6 avril 1936; p.261]
< Charlotte (+1985), Grand Duchess of Luxembourg [1919-1964] >
Nous Charlotte, par la grâce de Dieu, Grande- Duchesse de Luxembourg,
Duchesse de Nassau, etc., etc., etc.
+
Wir Charlotte, von Gottes Gnaden Großherzogin von Luxemburg,
Herzogin zu Nassau, zc., zc., zc.


-- the Full form

Grand Duke of Luxembourg;
Duke of Nassau;
Count Palatine of the Rhine,
Count of Sayn, Königstein, Katzenelnbogen, Diez;
Burgrave of Hammerstein;
Lord of Mahlberg, Wiesbaden, Idstein, Merenberg, Limburg, Eppstein;

@ Replaced:

-[1890] the Netherlands, Orange, "Prince of Nassau" with "Duke of Nassau", the Rhine, Sayn, Königstein, Katzenelnbogen, Diez, Hammerstein, Mahlberg, Wiesbaden, Idstein, Merenberg, Limburg, Eppstein
With the death of Grand Duke William III, the last male representative of the branch of Otto of the House of Nassau, Luxembourg was separated from the Netherlands. The Crown of Luxembourg passed to Adolph, a representative of the branch of Walram (Weilburg) of the House of Nassau (1890). Adolphus ruled in the Duchy of Nassau before its annexation to Prussia in the course of the war between Austria and Prussia in 1866.






--- 1940-1944 ( Interregnum : the German occupation )






--- 1944-1964

-- the Short form

Grand Duke of Luxembourg;
Duke of Nassau;

@ Samples:

(Sep 1964) [3: A - Nr.72; 28 septembre 1964; p.1405]
< Charlotte (+1985), Grand Duchess of Luxembourg [1919-1964] >
Nous Charlotte, par la grâce de Dieu, Grande-Duchesse de Luxembourg,
Duchesse de Nassau etc., etc., etc.;






--- Since 1964

-- the Short form

Grand Duke of Luxembourg;
Duke of Nassau;

@ Samples:

(June 1965) [3: A - Nr. 46; 4 août 1965; p.755-757]
< John of Bourbon-Parma (born 1921), Grand Duke of Luxembourg [1964-2000] >
Nous Jean, par la grâce de Dieu, Grand-Duc de Luxembourg,
Duc de Nassau, etc., etc., etc.
+
Wir Jean, von Gottes Gnaden, Grossherzog von Luxemburg,
Herzog von Nassau, usw., usw., usw.

(July 1981) [3: A - Nr. 56; 18 août 1981; p.1315-1316; 1322]
Nous Jean, par la grâce de Dieu, Grand-Duc de Luxembourg,
Duc de Nassau
+
Wir Jean, von Gottes Gnaden, Grossherzog von Luxemburg,
Herzog von Nassau

(Nov 2000) [3: A - Nr. 123; 6 décembre 2000; p.2847-2848]
< Henry (born 1955), Grand Duke of Luxembourg 2000 >
Nous Henri, Grand-Duc de Luxembourg,
Duc de Nassau